計量單位與換算公式    [回試]

常數與換算

地球赤道半徑=6378.39km

地球兩極半徑=6356.91km

地球旋轉角速度Ω=7.292×105s-1

重力 g45=980.616cms-2

太陽常數=1.96lymin-1

水分子量mw=18.016gmol-1

乾空氣氣體常數=2.8704×106ergg-1K-1

乾空氣平均分子量m=28.966g mol-1

乾空氣定壓比熱 cp=7R/2=0.240 calg-1K-1

乾空氣定容比熱 cv=5R/2=0.171 calg-1 K-1

Stefan-Boltzmann constant=8.132×10-11lyK-4 min-1

緯度平行於赤道,1度約 111公里,經度因為在兩極相會,故自赤道處之1度約111公里漸向兩極縮為 0公里,在台北(北緯24)附近,1經度約為 101公里。兩點間之距離公式列如下:[表]

兩點間距離D(x1,y1,x2,y2)=r×acos(sin(x1) ×sin(x2)+cos(x1) ×cos(x2) ×cos(y1-y2))

x,y是緯度,經度的弧度單位,r是地球半徑

在同經度上時  D=r×|x1-x2|

 

 

氣壓1 atmosphere pressure=1013.25hPa=760.00mmHg=29.921 inches(Hg)14.7lb/sq.inch

速度:1m/s = 1.94knots = 2.24mile/h = 3.28ft/s = 3.60 km/h

長度1nautical mile=1.150776mile=6076feet=1852公尺meter=6100台尺=72913inch

重量1台斤=0.6公斤kilogram=1.2市斤=1.3227pound=21.16434英兩ounce

面積1公頃=100公畝=10000平方公尺sq.meter=2.471英畝acre=1.0310=3025=10.31

容積:1立方公尺cubic meter=1公秉=1000公升liter=219.98加侖gallon(UK)=264.171gallon(USA)

熱量:1J=107耳格erg1 熱化學卡# cal=4.187J (1 J=1 Nm) 

    #註:20035經濟部標準檢驗局出版國際單制之使用指南」列有其他非SI之單位,由CGS導出之單位(不建議使用者)http://www.bsmi.gov.tw/wSite/public/Attachment/f1221551362000.doc  (22)

 

太陽輻射單位換算 --近紫外線(0.3-0.4μ)至近紅外線(3~4μ)間之波長

積算量:1MJm-2=23.9calcm-2=0.278 kWhm-2

強度:1calcm-2min-1=0.698kWm-2

1kWm-2=1.431calcm-2min-1

1J=1Ws      

1ly=1calcm-2= 0.0428MJm-2

IPS(International Pyrheliometric Scale)-1956觀測值=Smithsonian觀測值 × 0.98

WRR(World Radiometric Reference) 觀測值= IPS-1956觀測值  × 1.022   (CWB測報作業規範)

 

長度(英美制) Lengths *

1 foot (ft.) = 12 inches (in.)

1 yard (yd) = 3 feet

1 rod = 5.5 yards

1 fathom = 6 feet

1 furlong = 40 rods = 1/8 mile

1 mile (mi.) = 1760 yards = 5280 feet

1 nautical mile = 1.15 miles = 6076.1 feet

1 land league = 3 miles

1 marine league = 3 nautical miles

 

重量(英美制) Weights *

Avoirdupois Measures

1 grain = 0.0648 grams (g)

1 ounce (oz.) = 437.5 grains

1 pound (lb.) = 16 ounces

1 ton = 2000 pounds

1 long ton = 2240 pounds

Troy Measures

1 grain = 0.0648 grams (g)

1 carat = 3.086 grains = 0.2 grams

1 pennyweight = 24 grains

1 troy ounce = 480 grains

1 troy pound = 12 troy ounces

Apothecary Measures

1 grain = 0.0648 grams (g)

1 scruple = 20 grains

1 dram = 3 scruples

1 apothecary ounce = 8 drams

1 apothecary pound = 12 apothecary ounces

體積  Volumes *

液體計量 Liquid Measures

 

1 tablespoon (tbsp or T) = 3 teaspoons (tsp or t)

1 fluid ounce (fl oz) = 2 tablespoons = 1.805 in3

1 cup (c) = 8 fl. oz.

1 pint (pt) = 16 fl. oz. = 28.88 in3

1 quart (qt) = 2 pints = 57.75 in3

1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts

1 barrel of petroleum = 42 gal.

1 barrel of liquid = 31 gal.

固體計量 Dry Measures

 

1 in3 = 16.387 cm3

1 ft3 = (12 in)3 = 1728 in3

1 yd3 = (3 ft)3 = 27 ft3

1 dry pint (pt) = 33.60 in3

1 dry quart (qt) = 2 dry pints = 67.2 in3

1 peck = 8 dry quarts

1 bushel = 4 pecks

1 cord = 128 ft3

SI (Metric) Prefixes *

Small Values

Large Values

Prefix

Abbreviation

Value

Prefix

Abbreviation

Value

(十分) deci

d

10-1

deca

da

101

(百分) centi

c  (%)

10-2

hecto

h

102

milli

m

10-3

kilo

k

103

micro

μ  (ppm)

10-6百萬分

百萬Mega

M

106

(極微)nano

n  (ppb)

10-9十億分

(十億)Giga

G

109

(微微)pico

p

10-12兆分

Tera

T

1012

femto

f

10-15

Peta

P

1015

atto

a

10-18

Exa

E

1018

zepto

z

10-21

Zetta

Z

1021

yocto

y

10-24

Yotta

Y

1024

中文慣用詞

 

10-4

 

104

 

10-5

 

108

 

 

 

 

1016

 

 

 

其他:中國古稱

1020

1024

1028

1032

1036

1040

1044

1048

 

 

 

參考名稱:

恆河沙

阿僧祇

那由他

不可思議

無量

大數

1052

1056

1060

1064

1068

1072

 

  

換算 *

 

英制 -> 公制

 

1 inch = 2.540 cm

1 foot = 0.3048 m

 

1 yard = 0.9144 m

1 mile = 1.6093 km

 

1 pound = 0.4536 kg

1 fl. oz. = 29.574 milliliters

 

1 qt = 0.9464 liters

1 gal = 3.785 liters

 

公制 -> 英制

 

1 cm = 0.3937 in.

1 m = 3.28 feet

 

1 m = 1.094 yards

1 km = 0.6214 mi.

 

1 kg = 2.205 pounds

1 milliliter = 0.03381 fl. oz.

 

1 liter = 1.057 qt.

1 liter = 0.2642 gal.

 

 

 

 

 

  

溫度 Temperature

 

  

理想氣體狀態方程 Equation of State of an Ideal Gas

pV = mRT    if p=1013.25mb, V=22.415*10**3cm**3, T=273.16K

          R*=mR=universal gas constant =8.3144*10**7 erg mol**-1 k**-1

 

財務公式 Financial Formulas *

 

 

 

Savings Plan

(Regular Payments)

Savings Plan Formula

Solved for Payments

Loan Payment Formula

(Installation Loans)

*部分 摘自美國赫德遜州立大學網頁:http://www.hsu.edu/faculty/lloydm/classes/la/formulas.htm